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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ccur.lib.ccu.edu.tw/handle/A095B0000Q/99


    Title: 繞射光柵線性軸多自由度誤差量測系統之開發;Grating-Based Interferometry For Multi-Degree-Of-Freedom Error Measurement System
    Authors: 陳家陞;Chen, Chia-Sheng
    Contributors: 機械工程系研究所
    Keywords: 模態共振;誤差量測;繞射光柵;guide-mode resonances;Error measurement;Diffraction grating
    Date: 2017
    Issue Date: 2019-05-23 12:52:31 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 機械工程系研究所
    Abstract: 隨著加工精度逐日進步,精密量測系統的需求日益遽增,然而如今具奈米解析度之量測系統價格昂貴,大多不能同時量測多個自由度,且不易整合至工具機上做即時偵測,因此開發出多自由度、低成本、且可整合至的量測系統,為一種可發展具有高度需求之量測技術 本研究提出一種利用低成本之塑膠光柵來發展單線性軸之多自由度量測系統,在線性量測方面,本研究利用都卜勒效應造成正負一階繞射光的頻差,利用兩道光彼此產生外差干涉,透過移動光柵將位移的訊號轉換成干涉訊號,藉由光強度變化可精確量測誤差。量測系統架構設計方面,本系統利用握拉斯頓稜鏡將雷射光分光至同一側的特性,開發出利用握拉斯頓稜鏡來匯聚光柵繞射光的量測系統,並利用分光鏡及偏振光學元件將光學量測系統,得到兩組相差干涉訊號.利用四象限分割法將兩組相差干涉光訊號分割成四種狀況,完成量測系統之方向辨別及解析度的提升,同時利用資料擷取卡接收干涉訊號。  角度量測方面,我們利用塑膠光柵發展新型的角度變化偵測機制,其利用表面波導模態共振之原理,當塑膠光柵表面鍍上一層高折射率材料時,其表面模層為一波導層,入射光以特定角度入射時,會符合波導模態共振之條件,即可耦合至波導層內傳導,當角度偏離特定角度時,耦合光強度將隨即變弱,此角度偵測原理為利用耦合光強度來轉換角度變化。量測系統架構設計方面,我們利用雷射光直接入射鍍上薄膜之塑膠光柵,由光柵側邊接收耦合光源。接著利用Labview編寫了訊號計數器及光強度角度轉換之程式,實現線性及角度量測系統的完整性。  已成功的利用低成本之塑膠光柵來架設光學量測系統,其線性量測行程250 μm的標準誤差平均為1.9 μm,平均誤差為3.77 μm以內。角度量測行程216 arcsec的標準誤差為2.64 arcsec,平均誤差為2.5 arcsec。未來將兩者量測系統結合,並整合至工具機上做實機測試。關鍵字:繞射光柵、誤差量測、模態共振。
    With the advancement of processing in terms of precision, the demands for precisemeasurement systems have been increasing significantly. However, nano-resolutionmeasurement systems are too expensive. And most of them cannot measure multipledegrees of freedom at the same time. Moreover, it is not easy to integrate them withmachine tools for real-time detection. Thus, multi-degree- of-freedom measurementsystems of low costs which can be integrated were developed. This measurementtechnology is highly demanded and developable. This study proposes a multi-degree- of-freedom measurement system for lineardisplacement of machine tools using low-cost plastic grating. In the aspect ofmeasurement of linear displacement, this study applies the Doppler Effect in order tocreate frequency difference of diffraction. The two lights produce heterodyneinterference. By moving the grating, the displacement signals are transformed into interference signals.Errors can be measured with high precision based on the changesof light intensity. In the aspect of measurement system structure design, a Wolastonprism is used to split laser beams to the same side. Based on this characteristic, ameasurement system using a Wolaston prism to converge lights from the diffractiongrating is developed. Also, a spectroscope and a polarization optical component areused to obtain two sets of phase difference interference signals. The four-quadrantdivision method is applied to divide the phase difference interference signals into foursituations. As a result, the direction identification and resolution improvement for themeasurement system are achieved, while a data acquisition card is used to receiveinterference signals. In the aspect of angle measurement, the plastic grating is used to develop a newmechanism to detect angle changes. Based on the theory of surface guide-moderesonance, when there is a layer made of a high index of refraction material plated onthe surface of the plastic grating, the surface layer is a guiding layer. When the angleof an incoming incident ray meets the condition of guide-mode resonance, the result iscoupling to the guiding layer for transmission. And when the angle does not meet thecondition, the intensity of coupled light reduces immediately. The theory behind thisis to convert angle changes based on the intensity of the coupled light. In the aspect ofthe measurement system structure design, we send the laser beam directly through theplastic grating of the plated thin membrane. The coupled light is received from theside of the grating. Then Labview is used for the programming of the signal counterand the light intensity angle conversion, completing the linear displacement and anglemeasurement systems. The measurement systems built using the low-cost plastic grating have beensuccessfully developed. The standard error of the measurement of linear displacementfor a 250 μm stroke is 1.9 μm and the average error is under 3.77 μm. As for themeasurement of angle for a of 216 arcsec stroke, the standard error is 2.64 arcsec andthe average error is 2.5 arcsec. In the future, the two measurement systems will becombined and integrated into machine tools for field tests.Keywords: Diffraction grating, Error measurement, Guide-mode resonances
    Appears in Collections:[機械工程學系] 學位論文

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