本研究旨在瞭解個案教師實施兒童哲學的理念與作法，且探討個案教師實施兒童哲學教學所面臨的困難與因應策略，以及個案教師之教學省思情形。本研究採取質性取向的個案研究，立意選取以兩位進行兒童哲學教學之國小教師為研究對象，運用深度訪談、文件分析等方式蒐集資料，研究發現結論如下。1.教師的求學經歷、對兒童哲學的看法以及所認為的教師角色均影響實施兒童哲學之理念。2.個案教師進行兒童哲學的歷程，包含實施時間仍以完整課堂為主、教師在哲學的專業性影響其選用教材的廣度、為形成探究團體，課程開始前需先引發孩童興趣，並可採用多樣化的教學方式，如演戲、繪畫等。3.教師在實施兒童哲學時遇到的困境為：部分學生參與意願不高甚至故意唱反調、部分學生不擅長表達、學生的不信任與質疑、班級中特殊生的影響、家長的支持度不高、時間不足，壓縮討論時間、不同的班級特質，影響教師活動發展。4.教師實施後，能透過自我省思，強化兒童哲學的實施。 AbstractThe purposes of the study were to understand the two teachers’ ideas and actions on teaching philosophy for children, and to understand the difficulties, the strategies and reflections which the case study teachers faced during the teaching practice on philosophy for children. The researcher collected the data by interview and document analysis through the qualitative approach.The important findings of the study are presented as follows: firstly, the teachers' learning experiences, their attitude toward the philosophy for children and the roles that the teachers assumed to be could all affect their concepts on teaching philosophy for children. Thirdly, teachers were challenged by some difficulties during their teaching of philosophy for children. For instance, some of the students participated in class with the low intention of learning and even argued against teachers. Some of them were not good at expressing. Also, students' distrust and queries to teachers, the impacts from exceptional students in the class, lower support by students' parents, deficiency of time, discussion time compression, and different classroom climates would all affect teachers' activity development.