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    题名: 從認知社會語言學分析漢語分類詞之語意變異;A Cognitive Sociolinguistic Study on Semantic Variation in Chinese Classifiers
    作者: 黃木臻萱;HUANG, CHEN-HSUAN
    贡献者: 語言學研究所
    关键词: 語言態度;社會語言學;語意變異;漢語分類詞;language attitude;sociolinguistics;semantic variation;Chinese classifier
    日期: 2017
    上传时间: 2019-07-17
    出版者: 語言學研究所
    摘要: 分類詞(classifier)是漢語中的一大特色,同時也是人們分類事物的認知機制。然而,過去對於分類詞的社會變異研究關注不多,有鑑於此,本文結合了認知以及社會語言學研究,試圖分析「輛、部、台」以及「個、顆、粒」的使用變異。就內在因素而言,依屬性結構(Pustejovsky, 1995)將語意進行分類,再經由羅吉斯迴歸找出影響語言使用差異的最佳因子。其次,在探究外在因素方面,主要可分成三個部分,第一部分使用「快速匿名觀察」法,比較「輛、部、台」在不同等級之汽車展售場及「個、顆、粒」在超市和傳統市場的使用差異。第二階段的參與者為40位童軍團成員,目的在探討年齡、性別、使用台語頻率與分類詞之間的關係。第三階段的語言態度研究旨在了解大學生對於不同分類詞使用的評價,同時探討造成語言變異的可能成因。語言內部變異的研究結果如下:「輛」較常使用於四輪以上及非個人使用目的之車輛。其次,「部」和「台」主要突顯車輛之外觀及用途。就「個、顆、粒」而言,雖然物體大小是決定這組分類詞的關鍵,但「顆」的語意有擴大趨勢,因而間接提高了其使用頻率。在社會成因方面,第一階段的研究顯示,銷售員普遍不使用「輛」,而中等價位車商之年長男性銷售員傾向使用「部」,「台」則較受高價位以及二手車商之年輕女性銷售員青睞。另外,「個」常見於超市中的年長女性,傳統市場中的年輕族群則偏好「粒」而男性則喜愛「顆」。第二階段的研究發現,年長女性且工作中不常使用閩南語者偏好「輛」;工作中經常使用閩南語之男性常選擇「部」;在家經常使用閩南語之年輕人則會使用「台」。至於「個、顆、粒」,工作中經常使用閩南語之男性偏好「個」;年輕女性較青睞「顆」;在家偶爾使用閩南語之男性會用「粒」。第三階段的研究顯示,性別以及居住地區對於分類詞的選擇有顯著性差異。台北人認為「輛」的使用最佳,而高雄人傾向「台」;女性偏好「個」而男性則喜愛「顆」。本研究結果不但說明了分類詞的使用非任意,而是依循認知模式的選擇,更重要的是,此研究反映了分類詞在當前台灣社會的使用情況。
    Classifier is one of the most striking features of Mandarin Chinese, and it is also one of the devices that show human categorization. However, little attention has been paid to the classifier variations and their uses in the society. This work addressed the lacuna by investigating two classifier sets: “liang (輛), bu (部),tai (台)” and “ge (個), ke (顆), li (粒)” using cognitive and variationist sociolinguistic analyses. For internal factors, Qualia structure (Pustejovsky, 1995) was adopted to classify the semantics, and finally identified the best influential factors through the logistic regression analyses. For the internal factors, first, rapid and anonymous observation was applied to investigate to see how car dealers and market shoppers use classifiers. Second, forty scout members were recruited to examine how gender, age, and Southern Min frequency affect the use of classifiers. Third, the language attitude survey was meant to understand how college students evaluate the classifiers, and tries to find out the possible reasons for the variation. The findings of internal factors are as follows. Liang (輛) is used for four-wheeled or non-personal use vehicles; bu (部) and tai (台) highlight the appearance and function of the vehicles. Though the object size is a critical factor for “ge (個), ke (顆), li (粒)”, the semantic expansion in ke (顆) makes it have higher usage frequency. For external factors, it found that liang (輛) is not used by car sales; bu (部) is preferred by middle ranking, senior males while tai (台) is popular among young females in higher ranking and used car dealers. In addition, ge (個) is used by senior females in the supermarket. Young people in the traditional markets tend to use li (粒) while males like ke (顆). For the sociolinguistic interviews, liang (輛) is favored by senior females who use Southern Min at work once a while. Males who use Southern Min often at work would use bu(部). Young people who use Southern Min often at home tend to choose tai (台). ge (個) is used for males who often use Southern Min often at work while young females prefers ke (顆). Males who rarely use Southern Min at home would choose li (粒).Finally, gender and residential area have influential impact on the use of classifiers. Taipei residents prefer liang (輛) while Kaohsiung favor tai (台). Females like the use of ge (個) while males favor ke (顆). The results demonstrated that the use of Chinese classifier is not arbitrary, but instead follow cognitive-based categories. More importantly, it reflects the classifier uses in contemporary Taiwan society.
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