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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ccur.lib.ccu.edu.tw/handle/A095B0000Q/326

    Title: 臺灣華語音節末鼻音(eng)合流之社會語音變異研究;A Sociolinguistic Study of Phonological Variation of Nasal Coda (eng) Merger in Taiwan Mandarin
    Authors: 陳佩姍;CHEN, PEI-SHAN
    Contributors: 語言學研究所
    Keywords: 音節末鼻音合流;語音變異;舌冠音;語言態度;社會因素;臺灣華語;nasal coda merger;language variation;coronal;language attitude;social variables;Taiwan Mandarin
    Date: 2017
    Issue Date: 2019-07-17
    Publisher: 語言學研究所
    Abstract: 本文主要探討台灣華語音節末鼻音合流的語言變異之現象,分別取樣不同地區、性別等社會因素進行研究分析。前人文獻中指出地域背景是造成台灣華語音節末鼻音合流(ing)和(eng)最重要的因素。然而,在此合流的內部語言因素之研究,前人文獻是探討音節末鼻音合流的方向與鼻音前的母音/i/和/?/,研究結果未能達成一致性。因此,本研究的目的主要探討音節末鼻音(eng)之合流,並以社會因素與語言內部因素兩方向,提出三個研究問題: (1) 音節末鼻音(eng)前的聲母位置是造成語言變異的內部因素嗎? 而外部因素包含年齡、性別、言談風格是否有統計上顯著的差異? (2) 成長區域是否對音節末鼻音(eng)合流也有統計上顯著性差異? 前人假設若為對,台北受測者是此合流的領導者嗎? (3)參與測驗之受測者是否對音節末鼻音之變體[n]採取負面的語言態度? 本文主要分為兩個測驗,第一個測驗邀請台南地區老、中、青三個世代,每個世代男性、女性各五位,其中一位中世代女性未被納入,總共29位受測者參與測驗。採用正式(詞彙表唸讀)和非正式(問題面談)之言談風格蒐集語料。第二個測驗邀請北部與南部地區共26位受測者,透過對話型角色唸讀來調查音節末鼻音(eng)合流之語言變異現象,完成第二測驗的受測將填寫關於自身的語言行為與對變體語言態度之問卷。最後,收集的語料經標記以GOLDVARB (a logistic regression program)進行量化的語言變異分析,並找出統計上最顯著性差異之影響變異因素。 研究結果顯著性差異因素為下: (1) 內部語言因素“聲母”呈現統計上最顯著性差異,且兩個測驗皆達到一致性的結果;音節末鼻音(eng)前之子音為舌冠音是造成音(eng)合流最主要的因素。(2)第二個顯著性差異之因素為言談風格,如同前人文獻顯示語言使用者在正式場合會採用較為優越、標準之的語言行為;反之,則使用非優勢音。(3) 性別在本研究中兩個測驗皆顯示為統計上顯著影響其鼻音合流,男性相較於女性更喜愛使用[n]變體。再者,(4) 成長區域在音節末鼻音(eng)合流也扮演舉足輕重的影響,此結果與先前文獻研究一致,亦即,北部人傾向於使用[n]變體的頻率較南部人來的高。此外,年齡未達顯著性差異。最後,語言態度與[n]變體的使用有程度上的關聯性,結果顯示大部分受測者對台灣華語音節末鼻音合流的變異現象採取正面的語言態度。因此,正面的語言態度也是造成此合流因素之一。
    This study primarily explores the phonological variation of nasal coda in Taiwan Mandarin with the design of sampling from different regions and genders. Previous studies indicate that place of origin is a curial factor to influence the nasal coda (ing) and (eng) merger. However, the previous study focuses on the merger direction and the preceding vowels /i/ and /?/ of the nasal coda, but the results cannot reach the consensus. Thus, the purpose of this study concentrates on the (eng) merger of Taiwan Mandarin, and examines the variation with three research questions from the perspectives of internal linguistic and external social variables: (1) Do language internal factor of syllable onset account for the variation of nasal codas (eng)? Do external factors, such as age, gender and formal vs. informal style account for the variation of (eng) in Taiwan Mandarin? (2) Does the variable “regional origin” account for the variation of the syllable-final nasal (eng)? If yes, do Taipei residents lead the merger type? (3) Do the participants have negative attitudes towards the [n] variant of the nasal coda (eng)? Two tasks are involved in this study. Twenty-nine participants recruited in the first task, divided into generation with five participants of males and females. One of middle age females was eliminated. Tokens are collected by the formal context (word-list reading) and the informal context (question-interview). The second task invited 26 participants from northern and southern residents to read dialogues. The participants of the second task were asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding their language performance and attitudes toward the variant at the end of task. All collected data was analyzed by GOLDVARB (a logistic regression program) for quantitative analysis. The statistically significant results of this study are as follows: (1) Internal variable of the coronal onset consonant is the most important effect on the variation and both tasks reveal the same finding. (2) Styles of formality; as previous studies stated, the more prestigious and standard linguistic form is used in formal context, conversely, non-prestigious form produced in informal context. (3) Gender is a significant variable on the (eng) merger; male speakers have greater frequency of use than females. Also, (4) regional origin plays a substantial role on the variation; the finding of this study is consistent with the previous studies (Fon et al. 2011 and Su 2012). That is, northern residents show higher preference of the [n] variant. In addition, age cannot account for the variation of the merger. Last, there is a correlation between language attitudes toward the [n] variant and language performance to some extent. The result indicates that most participants adopt a more positive attitude toward the variation of nasal coda merger in Taiwan Mandarin. Thus, language attitude is one of the factors on the variation.
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