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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ccur.lib.ccu.edu.tw/handle/A095B0000Q/243


    Title: 以摩擦攪拌製程添加微米級鎳顆粒製備鋁基顆粒強化複合材料
    Authors: 陳柏亨;CHEN, PO-HENG
    Contributors: 機械工程系研究所
    Keywords: 摩擦攪拌製程;鋁基複合材料;介金屬化合物;原位合成;Friction stir processing;Aluminum matrix composites;Intermetallic compounds;In situ synthesis
    Date: 2017
    Issue Date: 2019-07-17
    Publisher: 機械工程系研究所
    Abstract:   鋁基複合材料(Aluminum Matrix Composites, AMCs),因具有較佳的強度、剛性和耐磨耗性等優點,常用於高強度結構元件及航太靜態結構元件,其中以顆粒強化鋁基複合材料為主流,顆粒強化相可以是陶瓷材料或金屬,近年來許多學者嘗試以介金屬化合物作為鋁基複合材料之強化相顆粒,成功提升各系鋁合金之機械性質。  摩擦攪拌製程由摩擦攪拌銲接衍生而來的技術,利用高速旋轉刀具旋入欲接合材料進行攪拌,此時肩部會與材料緊密接觸並摩擦銲件表面產生摩擦熱,促使材料之降伏強度降低,進而產生劇烈的塑性流動行為,達到母材在固相下接合的目的。  本研究以摩擦攪拌製程添加微米級鎳顆粒於Al 1060及Al6061板材內,並原位生成鋁-鎳介金屬化合物。經X-ray繞射儀分析Al6061添加鎳顆粒之複材,除了Ni的訊號外,都可以得到Al3Ni、Al3Ni2和Al4Ni3等介金屬化合物的特徵繞射峰。由金相與掃描式電子顯微鏡的背向散射電子影像,觀察強化相顆粒分佈情形與形貌特徵,再以電子微探儀鑑定鋁-鎳介金屬化合物之組成有Al3Ni及Al3Ni2,經由奈米壓痕試驗可知Al3Ni及Al3Ni2之壓痕硬度值是鋁基地的4到6倍。將銲道進行T6熱處理,可觀察到介金屬層擴大,介金屬化合物之組成也發生變化。  在機械性質方面,以摩擦攪拌製程添加適量Ni顆粒,可以提升銲道機械性質。含有鋁-鎳介金屬化合物強化相顆粒在基地內的銲核區,其硬度值獲得了提升;銲道進行T6熱處理,鎳與鋁可再次反應使介金屬層擴大,同時,Al6061透過T6熱處理有析出硬化的效果,兩者強化效果是可以疊加的,可以更進一步的強化銲道;在拉伸試驗方面,添加鎳顆粒能使抗拉強度提升,又以銲道T6熱處理後表現最佳,但T6熱處理會使延伸率大幅降低;在磨耗性質方面,比較不同百分比的鎳含量,再進行T6熱處理比較,得知熱處理前後添加2.0wt%的Ni顆粒都有最佳的耐磨耗性質。
    Owing to its superb strength, stiffness and wear resistance, aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) commonly used in high strength structural and aerospace static structural devices. Besides, particle reinforced aluminum matrix composites are widespread as an approach to improve the mechanical properties of Al alloys, in which the second phases can be metals and ceramics. These days, friction stir processing (FSP), which is based on the basic principles of friction stir welding (FSW). A high speed rotating tool is inserted in the materials to be joined. Friction between the shoulder and workpieces results in localized heating that decreases yield stress of the workpieces and generates severely plastically flow. Finally, a weld joint is produced in solid state. In this study, the second phases of Al-Ni intermetallic compounds were synthesized in situ by FSP on Al alloy matrix by stirring Ni powders into Al alloy plates. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated that the intermetallics are Al3Ni, Al3Ni2 and Al4Ni3. The dispersion of reinforced nickel particles and intermetallics in the base metal was observed using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and backscattered electron Image (BEI). Al3Ni and Al3Ni2 intermetallic compounds in the nugget zone were detected by electron micro probe analyzer (EPMA). These intermetallics are four to six time harder than the matrix according to the nanoindentation result. In addition, the amount of intermetallics increased and the composition of intermetallic compounds changed after T6-treatment. Adding appropriate amount of nickel powders into aluminum matrix using FSP improved mechanical properties of the weld. With the particulate reinforcement consisting of nickel powders and Al-Ni intermetallic compounds effectively enhanced the micro-hardness of nugget zone. In addition to the effect of Al-Ni intermetallic compounds reinforcement, the strengthening effect was superimposed by the precipitation hardening after T6-treatment. FSPed aluminum matrix composites revealed the highest UTS after T6-treatment, however, the elongation decreased significantly. Composites with 2.0wt% nickel powders had the best wear resistance.
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