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    题名: 滇緬公路與戰時運輸;Burma Road and Wartime Transportation
    作者: 林國榮;YONG, LIM KWOK
    贡献者: 歷史系研究所
    关键词: 蔣中正;龍雲;滇緬公路;中國遠征軍;Chiang Kai-shek;Long-yun;Burma Road;Chinese Expeditionary Forces
    日期: 2018
    上传时间: 2019-05-23 13:43:45 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 歷史系研究所
    摘要: 本論文敘述滇緬公路對戰時運輸之作用。抗戰軍興,華東沿海港埠即告失守,內陸及西南、西北國際交通頓形重要。淞滬會戰後,即仰賴粵漢鐵路及滇越鐵路為中國運輸物資之孔道。西北公路是因中蘇兩國簽訂《互不侵犯協定》,給予中國 2.5 億美元貸款修建,但是路線遙長,運量低,管理困難。滇越鐵路由於必須穿越崇山峻嶺,鐵路橋樑不易維修,一旦遭到轟炸,很容易癱瘓。粵漢鐵路因為武漢大戰後,粵漢兩地淪敵,此路即剩下長沙-株州段。湘桂越鐵路則隨著日軍侵入欽州灣,而相繼中斷。在淞滬會戰硝煙四起之際,雲南省主席龍雲飛往南京參與會議,向蔣中正委員長提議修建一條從省會昆明通往印度洋交通線。這就是滇緬公路的雛形。在淞滬拼戰之際,滇省府及外交部派員飛往仰光,與英緬政府談判。英國基於避免刺激日本,僅同意修築通往中國的公路方案。以一年為期修通之。雲南以崇山峻嶺、橫斷山脈及大江大河貫穿其中,修築公路自是不易。滇緬公路雖以昆明通往下關的滇西公路為雛形,但下關到國境卻是路線未決。直到淞滬戰爭爆發,方確定路線。600 公里的山路,在現代國家言實乃不易之事,何況是貧窮落後、缺乏修路機械的中國。滇西人民發揮驚人力量,在地形複雜、疾病四起、土崩石流的滇西地區,以七個月時間鑿出新路。滇緬公路修通後,後續改善工程陸續上來,同時兩國國際公路司機、過境關稅協議也大約同時進行,並頒布辦法。公路修通後,由軍委會西南運輸處負責軍委會物資輸運。其他政府及私人運輸機構亦紛紛投入運輸,造成公路亂象浮現,軍委會與交通部雖欲加強管理,但相當困難。公路修通後,需要大量司機投入輸運,由於西南運輸處司機分散各地,運力不足,因此運輸處主任宋子良請託南僑總會主席陳嘉庚於南洋僑居地招募司機與機工,募到了三千多位司機與機工,使得該處運力得以加強。本文除了探討滇緬公路修通經過、改善工程、關稅協議外,公路遭封鎖時所引起的各國反應及其財經效應,一直是被忽略的,筆者在此加以補充。最末是滇緬路戰役,中國軍隊在火線上,掩護英緬軍向印度撤退,而自己則邊打邊退,局勢紊亂,以致龍陵、騰衝等滇西重鎮相繼陷落,西南地區震動!幸國軍及時炸斷橫跨怒江的惠通橋,避免日軍過橋,造成中日兩軍隔江對峙局面,直到兩年後的滇西緬北大反攻。
    This thesis contain the Burma Road and its War-time Transportations. In war-time, Chinainternational route comprise of : 1. Canton(廣州) – Hankow(漢口) Railways, this routes towardto Hongkong, but due to loss of Canton and Hankow in October 1938, this route become useless. North- West Road(西北公路), this route via Gansu (甘肅) and Xinjiang(新疆) Provinces,to USSR. Although USSR borrowed Chinese Government totally USD 250 million’s war material but this route too long, difficult to managed it. 3. Yunnan(雲南)- Vietnam(越南) Railway,this route via mountainous terrain, also difficult to repair it. Due to the French surrender to Germany, Japanese invades Vietnam, Chinese Government cut off this route.During Shanghai War, Governor of Yunnan Province(雲南省政府主席), Long Yun(龍雲) flew to Nanjing attend military meeting. Long Yun plan’s was this : built a road fromKunming to Burma, to the sea. Yunnan Provincial Government and Central Government flew to Yangon to negotiate with Burmese Government. They agree within a year to finish it.Yunnan Province famous with its mountainous terrain and rivers. Construct a road toward suchterrain is nearly impossible. During Shanghai and Wuhan battle, 600km mountainous routes,250000 various ethnics, in lack of machines, the world astonish Chinese construction miracle- in 7 months built the Burma Road!The Road was built, but the administrations and improvement works was begins. Chinese-Burmese bilateral transit tariffs negotiations and promulgates these laws and regulations. Chinese Military Commission’s(軍事委員會) arms and ammunition was carried by South WestTransportation Bureau(西南運輸處,SWTB for short). Other governmental transport agency dothe same job. Thus causing administrative chaos.The road was built, but lack of drivers and mechanics. This because SWTB drivers wasscattered in other provinces, doing their jobs. Due to such conditions, director of SWTB, Song Tse Liang, call the president of Southeast China Relief Fund Union(南僑總會),Tan Kah Kee(陳嘉庚), to recruit drivers and mechanics. With a number of 3000 drivers and mechanics , theSWTB transport capacity grew steadily.Beside of constructions and improvement works, transit tariffs, the closure of the Burma Roadcause related regions act differently. For worsen the conditions, the closure of the road causesNationalist Government economically and financially difficulties, causing hyperinflation, till 1950’s the Communist Government controls it.Last of my thesis was the Battle of Burma Road. Tragically, this war ends with the retreat ofChinese Expeditionary Forces and the British retreat to India. The Chinese army blew out theHuitong(惠通橋) Bridge to hold off Japanese Army. Causing two army across the SalweenRiver, till 1943-1945’s counterattack.
    显示于类别:[歷史學研究所] 學位論文

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