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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ccur.lib.ccu.edu.tw/handle/A095B0000Q/902


    Title: 智慧財產權國際民事爭端處理之研究;A Study on the Civil Dispute Resolutions of International Intellectual Property Rights
    Authors: 游悅晨;YU, YUEH CHEN
    Contributors: 法律系研究所
    Keywords: 涉外智慧財產權;屬地主義;國際管轄權;選法規則;專屬管轄;合意管轄;準據法;原始國法;保護地法;當事人意思自主;關係最切原則;International Intellectual Property;Territoriality;International Jurisdiction;Country of Origin;Lex Protectionis;Applicable Law
    Date: 2017
    Issue Date: 2019-07-17 10:52:53 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 法律系研究所
    Abstract:   向來關於智慧財產權(Intellectual Property Right)之保護,因屬地主義之影響,各國多將其效力限於國家領域內,然因國際經濟貿易與文化活動交流增加,科技日新月異,跨國智慧財產權之保護越加重要,國際智慧財產權糾紛亦日益增多。此外,隨著世界貿易組織(World Trade Organization )成立後世界共同市場的形成,各國以締結雙邊或多邊國際條約的方式加以保護智慧財產權也甚為常見,希藉此使各國對於智慧財產權之保護趨於一致,進而打破其屬地主義之藩籬。而為解決著作權地域性之問題,透過國際雙邊協定或多邊國際公約,促進國際社會重視著作權之保護則成為19世紀末以來之潮流,例如英國、法國、德國、比利時等十個國家,於1886年在瑞士伯恩簽訂保護文學藝術作品之《伯恩公約》(Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works);美國等五十個國家在聯合國教科文組織的主持下,於1952年在日內瓦制定《世界著作權公約》(Universal Copyright Convention);在國際勞工組織之推動下,1960年在羅馬召開之鄰接權條約外交會議之後,成立《保護表演人、製作人、廣播機構之國際公約》(International Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations),簡稱為《羅馬公約》(Rome convention);於1977年非洲智慧財產權組織十二個法語國家在中非首都制定《班吉協定》(Bangui Agreement),成立跨國著作權法;1993年關稅暨貿易總協定所屬一百餘名會員國在烏拉圭回合談判,並於次年在摩洛哥簽署烏拉圭回合最終協議,其中《有關智慧財產權之協定》(Trade Related Aspect of Intellectual Property Rights),該協定包含最低保護原則、國民待遇原則與最惠國待遇原則;聯合國所屬世界智慧財產權組織於1996年通過《世界智慧財產權組織著作權條約》(WIPO Copyright Treaty)和《世界智慧財產權組織表演及錄音物條約》(WIPO Performances And Phonograms Treaty),同樣將國民待遇原則納入。這些多邊國際條約並非賦予著作權域外效力,而是透過國際保護條約中之國民待遇原則和自動保護原則,使著作權之法制全球化,進而使僅具屬地/域內效力之著作權得以受到他國之承認與保護。  惟國際條約之締結與參與,屬各國自主權力,且基於國內產業發展情形之不同及各方利益之角力下,各國對於智慧財產權之法制保護程度仍不一致,即目前國際間各國內國智慧財產權實體規範尚未盡相同,法律衝突問題於焉浮現。另我國涉外民事法律適用法於2010年5月26日大幅修正時,增訂第42條以處理國際智慧財產權準據法之選擇問題,並於2011年5月26日新法正式生效施行,然與各國立法相比較,新法處理問題之範圍不僅過於狹窄,所涵蓋的事件類型亦不明確,有無檢討及改進空間,殊值研究。另以目前我國法所承認之智慧財產權有著作權、商標權、專利權、積體電路佈局權、植物新品種權等等;而廣義的智慧財產權,尚包括商業名稱營業秘密、營業標記、不正競爭之防止與其他由精神活動所產生之權利,可知智慧財產權其領域範圍與內涵,實甚廣泛,欲以單一專論而兼論及之,誠屬不能。為此,本文擬以智慧財產權法領域中著作權、商標權、專利權等為主要研究範圍,相關篇幅並針對其他國際智慧財產權所涉領域與議題,綜合析述國際智慧財產權之爭端處理相關問題。  再者,與國際智慧財產權相關國際裁判管轄與法律適用問題牽涉亦廣,約略而言,各類型智慧財產爭議之國際裁判管轄基礎為何?裁判管轄權有無應如何決定?國際智慧財產權關係是否成立、有效?智慧財產權之讓與或授權規定?法律衝突應如何選定準據法?準據法之適用有何限制?等議題,均與智慧財產權之國際民事爭端處理問題相關。是以,本文除分析、比較各國就智慧財產權之管轄權及準據法選擇之學理論述與實務判決外,並就智慧財產權相關之國際組織、協議及公約加以介紹整理研究,嘗試就現有模式架構所產生之實務困難與理論缺失,提出拙見以對,期能供現行實務操作及日後修法之參考。
      The protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) has been limited by the influence of regionalism, therefore the impact of the legal effect of IPRs is also limited to the national scope. However, due to the increase in international economic and trade activities and ever-changing technologies, as well as the disputes of transnational IPRs have been increasing, the protection of transnational IPRs has become more and more important. In addition, with the establishment of the formation of universal markets, the World Trade Organization, numerous countries also try to protect their IPRs by signing the bilateral or multilateral international treaties, and to achieve the goal of the uniform legal system of the protection of IPRs, then to break the territorial barriers of the legal effect of IPRs. But the right to sign and participate in the international treaties or not still belongs to the state sovereignty, meanwhile every nation will also consider about the development of its domestic industries and the interests of all involved parties. As such, the legal system of IPRs’ protection is still different among the countries so far, hence it leads to legal conflicts of international IPRs’ protection.  At present, the IPRs recognized by our law system are copyright, trademark, patent, integrated circuit layout and new varieties of plants. A wide range of IPRs might also include the business names, trade secrets and marks, prevention of unfair competition and other rights originated from the activities of spirit creation. Therefore, we can see the scope and content of IPRs are very broad, this dissertation mainly focuses on the fields of copyright, patent and trademark to analyze and discuss. First, it’s the basic introduction of the rights, concepts, contents, types and nature of IPRs. Then discuss the causes and solutions of the conflict, the international jurisdiction, the rules of the choices of law, the recognition and enforcement of the judgments, the international arbitration of IPRs, the pro and cons and mechanisms of ADR system, then to introduce the important international organizations and treaties of the IPRs. Through the above introduction, analysis, discuss and the comparison of the academic articles and judgments of the international IPRs, the author tries to find the ways to solve the relating problems of the international IPRs disputes.  Moreover, when the “Act Governing the Choice of Law in Civil Matters Involving Foreign Elements” was amended on May 26, 2010, Article 42 (hereafter refer to Article 42) was amended to deal with the issues of international intellectual property law, then it was effective on May 26, 2011. However, comparing to the national legislations, the scope and type of dealing with the international IPRs issues of Article 42 are not only too narrow, but also unclear. Therefore, at the end of this dissertation, the author also discusses about the practical and theoretical difficulties of international IPRs disputes we are facing, as well as how to explain and apply Article 42 to the cases, trying to find the solution accordingly and to propose the suggestions about the future amendment of Article 42.
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