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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ccur.lib.ccu.edu.tw/handle/A095B0000Q/355


    Title: 應用於穿戴式/可攜式多媒體顯示裝置之節能及抗錯高畫質影像縮放器設計;AN ENERGY-EFFICIENT AND ERROR-RESILIENT HIGH QUALITY SCALER FOR WEARABLE/PORTABLE MULTIMEDIA DISPLAY
    Authors: 張朝陽;CHANG, CAHO-YANG
    Contributors: 電機工程研究所
    Keywords: 節能及抗錯影像縮放器;記憶體存取排程;高品質影像縮放;電壓調整技術;energy efficiency and error resilient scaler;memory scheduling;high quality image scaling;voltage scaling technique
    Date: 2017
    Issue Date: 2019-07-17
    Publisher: 電機工程研究所
    Abstract: 近年來,顯示技術與半導體製程技術的蓬勃發展,穿戴式及可攜式多媒體裝置(如頭戴式顯示器、智慧型手機、微型投影機及智慧眼鏡等)在人類生活中扮演越來越重要的角色,同時為了傳達資訊給使用者,絕大多數穿戴式及可攜式多媒體裝置配有尺寸及解析度不一的顯示面板。由於輸入影像的多元化,每個顯示裝置皆需要一個影像縮放器,來將各種輸入影像做解析度的縮放,並於面板顯示。然而,在多媒體裝置中,影像縮放品質提供人類一個深刻且直接的印象,因此,提高影像縮放品質一直是多媒體裝置的研究重點。所謂的影像縮放品質,指的是減少影像失真。例如,減少在影像縮放時,所造成的模糊現象,即為失去原始影像細節,或是減少因為影像縮放的長寬比不同,而使得影像中重要物件扭曲或變形。另一方面,為了延長電池的使用時間,低功率消耗以及節能一直是影像縮放器設計的重要目標,特別是穿戴式及可攜式多媒體裝置(其電源大多來自於電池)。而電壓調整機制已被證實能有效降低功率消耗,且部份具效能感知的電壓調整機制可偵測晶片對於先進製程變異或操作環境變異(如溫度及電壓)所造成的時序錯誤並更正,以進一步提高晶片良率。因此為了提升穿戴式或可攜式裝置的顯示品質與延長電池的使用時間,節能及抗錯高畫質影像縮放器(可用於電壓調整機制)是迫切需要的。因此本論文首先從演算法層面中提出兩個應用於不同場景的演算法,分別是具有高影像品質的可調式參數基於多項式影像縮放技術及低成本基於加法器的步階式線性內插技術。可調式參數基於多項式影像縮放技術可以同時保留影像細節及維持重要物件長寬比。因為保留影像細節,因此相較於傳統的雙線性內插提升大約5%到15%的影像品質,而這些影像品質是根據峰值訊號雜訊比來評比。另一方面,基於加法器的步階式線性內插技術維持傳統的雙線性的影像品質,並且在設計成本及功率消耗分別節省45%和44%。在架構方面,本論文提出一個縮放方向可交換式的架構搭配本論文所提出的一個節省記憶體使用量策略,相較於傳統的兩種架構分別可以節省101%和26%的記憶體使用量以及只124%和33%的功率消耗。另外,搭配本論文針對影像縮放架構所提出的記憶體存取方法,記憶體使用率可以在任何情況下達到接近100%的結果。另外,本論文考慮即時影像資料的特性,提出一個新的錯誤回復方法。首先忽略部分影像資料的影響,針對會嚴重影響品質的資料,利用周期延長的概念,搭配影像內插來校正因為電壓調整所造成的影像資料錯誤。在維持一定的影像品質下,系統因為電壓調整而在邏輯電路及整個晶片分別節省29%及10%的功率消耗。本論文中提出一個完整的設計流程,可因應設計應用於穿戴式/可攜式多媒體裝置之節能及抗錯高畫質影像縮放器,並且根據實驗結果,成功驗證此技術的可行性。
    Over the past decades, rapid development of display technology boosts demands for diverse multimedia displays such as smart phones, smart glasses, televisions, head-mount-display (HMD) and head-up-display (HUD). Since multimedia displays have a wide range of information sources and display panels, a scalar is indispensable for conversion of image sources from input resolution to output resolution (i.e. image scaling). To improve the experience perceived by human observers, multimedia displays are required to have superb quality. Such as less image content distortion, loss of detail and deformed salient object. Additionally, energy efficiency has become more and more important nowadays. Therefore, multimedia displays often have built in voltage scaling techniques to reduce power consumption and effects of PVT variations.Two image scaling algorithms are proposed in this thesis for different claims, including an adjustable coefficient polynomial-based interpolation (ACPI) and adder-based stepwise linear interpolation (ABSI). With ACPI, it is able to simultaneously maintain image details and aspect ratio. 5%-15% peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) improvement is observed as compared with conventional polynomial-based image scaling algorithms. The ABSI has a similar scaling quality in terms of PSNR but also enables reduction of chip area and power consumption by 45% and 44%, respectively. Furthermore, proposed storage requirement reduction strategy and interchangeable two-step scaler architecture achieve 101% and 26% storage requirement reduction and 124% and 33% lower of power consumption as compared with two types of conventional inflexible scaler. Moreover, linebuffer utilization of the scalar is close to 100% with proposed pixel-based memory access method.Lastly, a new error resilient policy considering characteristics of linebuffer-based real-time scaler is proposed. It ignores errors of a nibble (i.e. 4bits) from LSB to MSB and uses a cycle extension and interpolation technique to correct timing error of the rest data bits while maintaining the image quality in terms of PSNR. And power consumption of logic and total chip are reduced by about 29% and 10%, respectively.In summary, a complete design procedure of an energy-efficiency and error-resilient high quality scaler for wearable/portable multimedia display is demonstrated in this thesis. And experimental results also verify the feasibility of proposed techniques.
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