東臺灣的地理形勢封閉，長期是原住民族所控有的「化外」。然而，牡丹社事件之後，國家力量開始深入東臺灣，對東部原住民族開築一系列用於征討及控制的交通線，在清治時期稱作理番道路，至日治時期則名為理蕃道路。 清治時期的理番道路可分成越嶺道及軍糧道兩類，前者先後共築有十條，但最終僅一條能夠通往東臺灣，而後者也只能控制沿線局部地區。由此可見，在清治時期，國家力量尚未能全面控有東臺灣，東臺灣仍以原住民族為主體。 日治時期，總督府在東臺灣的擴張可分成兩個階段。日治初期，先是廣設隘勇線，封鎖山地以確立其在平地的統治，至日治後期，已牢控住平地的臺灣總督府轉向山地擴張，開築並整建了多條理蕃道路，最終實際控有東臺灣全境，東部的原住民族至此徹底納入國家治下中。 東臺灣由「化外」轉為「實土」，始於晚清末年，於日治後期完成，其結果是原住民族土地的流失，被國家依政策需要奪取並轉供他用。 Eastern Taiwan has been ruled by Native Taiwanese for a long time. Due to its closed geography, Eastern Taiwan is also called “The Outer Fringes”. After Mudan Incident, Qing dynasty starts placing a high value on this area and conducting a series of traffic infrastructures. By doing this, Qing dynasty tries to rule Eastern Native Taiwanese. The infrastructures are called “The Road of Pacifying Native Taiwanese” in Qing dynasty while they are called “The Road of Ruling Native Taiwanese” in the Japanese-ruled period. The traffic infrastructures are divided into “Cross Mountain Trail” and “Supply Line” in Qing dynasty. Although the former one has ten routes, there is only one route can lead to Eastern Taiwan. In addition, the later one can only rule part of area.Therefore, the Qing dynasty still can’t fully rule the Eastern Taiwan, which Native Taiwanese are still the main community. In the Japanese-ruled period, the government operates two actions in Eastern Taiwan. First, they build “Defense Lines of Frontier Guards” to isolate Native Taiwanese. By doing this, they government tries to make sure their power in plain rea.Second, the General Governor of Taiwan turns their attention to mountain area after controlling the plain area. They conduct lots of infrastructures for ruling Native Taiwanese. Not for long, they rule all the Native Taiwanese in Eastern Taiwan. From the end of Qing dynasty to the Japanese-ruled period, Eastern Taiwan eventually becomes country’s territory. However, it also leads Native Taiwanese losing their territory.